Muhammad was a human being who lived from 570 to 632 BCE in what is now Saudi Arabia. Muhammad became an orphan at the age of 6. Soon after, he started to work as a merchant for his uncle, Abu Talib.
Muhammad married Khadija, a wealthy widow, when he was 25 years old. Marrying Khadija increased Muhammad’s social status, as he was already from the ruling tribe of Quraish.
Muhammad started to receive revelation from Allah when he was around 40 years old. Muhammad went to a mountain near Mecca called Mount Hira to contemplate on the ills and injustices that were prevalent in his society. Angel Gabriel of Allah came to Muhammad on this mountain and told him that he was the Messenger of God.
In the beginning, Muhammad gained few followers who realized that Muhammad he was the Messenger of God. He preached for 13 years to the Makkans, but in the end he and his followers were kicked out of Mecca in 622. They relocated in Medina, where they stayed for a decade until he passed away.
Muhammad was able to return to Mecca after 628 with 10,000 men when he negotiated a deal with and conquered the people of Mecca. Though they tortured, expelled and fought him and his followers, Muhammad chose to forgive them.
Muhammad died on June 8th, 632.
Gulevich, Tanya. Understanding Islam and Muslim Traditions: An Introduction to the Religious Practices, Celebrations, Festivals, Observances, Beliefs, Folklore, Customs, and Calendar System of the World’s Muslim Communities, including an Overview of Islamic History and Geography. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2004.
Toy, Crawford H. “Mohammed and the Islam of the Koran.” Harvard Theological Review 5.4 (1912): 474-514.
To read Understanding Islam and Muslim Traditions and “Mohammed and the Islam of the Koran”, please see attached documents.